8.2.B. Design: Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making

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8.2 Technology Education, Engineering, and Design: All students will develop an understanding of the nature and impact of technology, engineering, technological design, and the designed world, as they relate to the individual, global society, and the environment.
Grades:
PK-12
StrandB: Design: Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision-Making
Essential Questions
How does the use of the design process solve problems?
· How does technology extend human capabilities? What are the positive and negative consequences of technology? Should technologies that produce negative impact continue to be used?
· When are the most sophisticated tools required and when are the simplest tools best?

· Can a system continue to operate with a missing or malfunctioning component?
· Is it always beneficial to use the most economical material/materials for production of a technological product?

Enduring Understandings
Application of technology is purposeful and directed towards solving problems, and sometimes with unintended results.

· Technological outcomes have the potential for anticipated and unanticipated positive and negative results.

· The design process is fundamental to technology and engineering.

· A system has interrelated components designed to collectively achieve a desired goal.

· All technological activities use resources that include tools/machines, materials, information, energy, capital, time and people.
Content and Cumulative Progress Indicators (CPIs)
Classroom Applications
Content:
The design process is a systematic approach to solving problems.

CPI:
8.2.2. B.1 Brainstorm and devise a plan to repair a broken toy or tool using the design process.
Instructional Guidance
To assist in meeting this CPI, students may:
· Use creativity and innovation when applying troubleshooting techniques to solve problems based upon requirements and constraints.

Sample Assessments
To show evidence of meeting this CPI, students may complete the following performance assessment:


Resources (electronic/non-electronic print or non-print)
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Content:
The design process is a systematic approach to solving problems.

CPI:
8.2.2.B.2 Investigate the influence of a specific technology on the individual, family, community, and environment.
Instructional Guidance
To assist in meeting this CPI, students may:

Sample Assessments
To show evidence of meeting this CPI, students may complete the following performance assessment:


Resources (electronic/non-electronic print or non-print)
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Content:
The design process is a systematic approach to solving problems.

CPI:
8.2.4.B.1 Develop a product using an online simulation that explores the design process.

Instructional Guidance
To assist in meeting this CPI, students may:
·

Sample Assessments
To show evidence of meeting this CPI, students may complete the following performance assessment:


Resources (electronic/non-electronic print or non-print)
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Content:
The design process is a systematic approach to solving problems.

CPI:
8.2.4.B.2 Design an alternative use for an existing product.
Instructional Guidance
To assist in meeting this CPI, students may:
·

Sample Assessments
To show evidence of meeting this CPI, students may complete the following performance assessment:


Resources (electronic/non-electronic print or non-print)
· http://pbskids.org/designsquad/projects/index.html Design Squad Projects
· http://www.tryengineering.org/lesson.php?age=12 Other Project Ideas


Content:
The design process is a systematic approach to solving problems.

CPI:
8.2.4.B.3 Explain the positive and negative effect of products and systems on humans, other species, and the environment.
Instructional Guidance
To assist in meeting this CPI, students may:
·

Sample Assessments
To show evidence of meeting this CPI, students may complete the following performance assessment:


Resources (electronic/non-electronic print or non-print)
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Content:
The design process is a systematic approach to solving problems.

CPI:
8.2.4.B.4 Compare and contrast how technology transfer happens within a technology, among technologies, and among other fields of study.

Instructional Guidance
To assist in meeting this CPI, students may:
·

Sample Assessments
To show evidence of meeting this CPI, students may complete the following performance assessment:

· With a partner, design and build a landing device for an ‘Egg Rover’ that will protect it from structural damage when landing on Mars. Specific directions can be found at
http://www.thetech.org/education/downloads/dconline/RoverLanding_2004.pdf

Resources (electronic/non-electronic print or non-print)
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Content:
The design process is a systematic approach to solving problems.

CPI:
8.2.8.B.1 Design and create a product that addresses a real-world problem using the design process and working with specific criteria and constraints.

Instructional Guidance
To assist in meeting this CPI, students may:
·

Sample Assessments
To show evidence of meeting this CPI, students may complete the following performance assessment:


Resources (electronic/non-electronic print or non-print)
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Content:
The design process is a systematic approach to solving problems.

CPI:
8.2.8.B.2 Identify the design constraints and trade-offs involved in designing a prototype (i.e., how the prototype might fail and how it might be improved) by completing a design problem and reporting results in a multimedia presentation.
Instructional Guidance
To assist in meeting this CPI, students may:
· You are an ancient Mesopotamian farmer working with other farmers to develop agricultural lands in the southern lowlands. You must identify the problems and challenges that your community might face in developing this farmland along the one of the mighty rivers. You also must be able to explain your ideas of how to overcome these problems to your community so that work can proceed smoothly.
Create a working model of the river, fields, and town that shows how you can overcome all of the challenges identified in your proposal.
Scenario and additional information came be found at
http://www.thetech.org/education/downloads/dconline/FarmingMesopotamia.pdf

Related website
http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/geography/challenge/cha_set.html
·

Sample Assessments
To show evidence of meeting this CPI, students may complete the following performance assessment:
· Mesopotamian Farmer: demonstrate working model to community members or via posting the demonstration on a class website. Be sure to include narration and a downloadable and searchable document explaining the project.
·
Resources (electronic/non-electronic print or non-print)
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Content:
The design process is a systematic approach to solving problems.

CPI:
8.2.8.B.3 Solve a science-based design challenge and build a prototype using science and math principles throughout the design process.

Instructional Guidance
To assist in meeting this CPI, students may:
·

Sample Assessments
To show evidence of meeting this CPI, students may complete the following performance assessment:
· Experiment with using different resources to safely transport an egg by completing the Speed, Eggs and Slam challenge. http://www.tryscience.org/experiments/experiments_begin.html?newtonseggs

Resources (electronic/non-electronic print or non-print)
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Content:
The design process is a systematic approach to solving problems.

CPI:
8.2.12.B.1 Design and create a product that maximizes conservation and sustainability of a scarce resource, using the design process and entrepreneurial skills throughout the design process.

Instructional Guidance
To assist in meeting this CPI, students may:
· Describe how variations in resources can affect solutions to a design problem.

Sample Assessments
To show evidence of meeting this CPI, students may complete the following performance assessment:


Resources (electronic/non-electronic print or non-print)
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Content:
The design process is a systematic approach to solving problems.

CPI:
8.2.12.B.2 Design and create a prototype for solving a global problem, documenting how the proposed design features affect the feasibility of the prototype through the use of engineering, drawing, and other technical methods of illustration.

Instructional Guidance
To assist in meeting this CPI, students may:
· Identify the characteristics of different resources (technological, people, time, money, information, tools, etc.) and the purposes they could possibly serve in the creation of a product.

Sample Assessments
To show evidence of meeting this CPI, students may complete the following performance assessment:


Resources (electronic/non-electronic print or non-print)
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Content:
The design process is a systematic approach to solving problems.

CPI:
8.2.12.B.3 Analyze the full costs, benefits, trade-offs, and risks related to the use of technologies in a potential career path.

Instructional Guidance
To assist in meeting this CPI, students may:
·

Sample Assessments
To show evidence of meeting this CPI, students may complete the following performance assessment:


Resources (electronic/non-electronic print or non-print)
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